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See gittutorial 7 to get started, then see giteveryday 7 for a useful minimum set of commands. After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual Git commands with "git help command". Other options are available to control how the manual page is displayed. See git-help 1 for more information, because git --help

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git-log(1) - Linux man page

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See gittutorial 7 to get started, then see giteveryday 7 for a useful minimum set of commands. After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual Git commands with "git help command". Other options are available to control how the manual page is displayed. See git-help 1 for more information, because git --help This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C option.

For example the following invocations are equivalent:. Including the equals but with an empty value like git -c foo. The interface input, output, set of options and the semantics to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

The following description divides the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects in the repository, index, and working tree , commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between repositories.

The following are helper commands used by the above; end users typically do not use them directly. Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See git-config 1 for a list and more details about the configuration mechanism. Read githooks 5 for more details about each hook. Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your personal.

Please consult your ssh documentation for further details. If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" comparison is case insensitive , trace messages will be printed to stderr. If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower than 10 strictly then Git will interpret this value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this file descriptor.

Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false" case insensitive disables trace messages. Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of clones and fetches. A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ". The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number of parent commits.

Commits with more than one parent represent merges of independent lines of development. All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique. The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose. When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".

Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. A special ref named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch. The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes.

The blob object represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The attributes last modified time, size, etc. Subsequent changes to the working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the content stored in the index. The index is also capable of storing multiple entries called "stages" for a given pathname.

These stages are used to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress. The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual [2] and gitcore-tutorial 7 both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture. See gitworkflows 7 for an overview of recommended workflows. Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration 7. If you have a clone of git. Source file: git.

Found a problem? See the FAQ. Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands. If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the manual page for that command. Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will override values from configuration files. Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. If no path is given, git will print the current setting and then exit.

Print the manpath see man 1 for the man pages for this version of Git and exit. Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git are installed and exit. This overrides the pager. Set the path to the repository. It can be an absolute path or relative path to current working directory. Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a path relative to the current working directory.

Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces 7 for more details. Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.

Treat the repository as a bare repository. Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-replace 1 for more information.

Treat pathspecs literally i. Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. Disabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ": literal ". Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. Enabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ": glob ". Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. A ' ' or ';' character indicates a comment. Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. Indicates a commit or tag object name. Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob , tree , commit , or tag.

This environment allows the specification of an alternate index file. This environment variable allows the specification of an index version for new repositories. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-index 1 for more information. Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories.

This variable specifies a ":" separated on Windows ";" separated list of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New objects will not be written to these directories. The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value. Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the core.

Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces 7 for details. The --namespace command-line option also sets this value. This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while looking for a repository directory useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.

Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them with the current directory. When run in a directory that does not have ". This environment variable can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. See gitrepository-layout 5 and git-worktree 1 for details. This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the Git diff command line.

A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive merge strategy.

10 Essential Git Log Command Examples on Linux to View Commits

Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If full is specified, the full ref name including prefix will be printed. If auto is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names are shown as if short were given, otherwise no ref names are shown. The default option is short. If no --decorate-refs is given, pretend as if all refs were included.

Limits the number of commits to show. Note that this is a commit limiting option, see below.

The simplest version of the log command shows the commits that lead up to the state of the currently checked out branch. These commits are shown in reverse chronological order the most recent commits first. You can force the log tool display all commits regardless of the branch checked out by using the —all option. The real power of the Git Log tool, however, is in its diversity. There are many options that not only allow you to filter commits to almost any granularity you desire, but to also tailor the format of the output to you personal needs.

git-log(1) Manual Page

For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also presents the merge commit in a special format as produced by git diff-tree --cc. The command takes options applicable to the git diff-tree command to control how the changes the commit introduces are shown. The names of objects to show defaults to HEAD. Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration see git-config[1]. Instead of showing the full byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a partial prefix. Show the full byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the log. The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the user.

Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames works only for a single file. Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If full is specified, the full ref name including prefix will be printed. If auto is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names are shown as if short were given, otherwise no ref names are shown.

If full is specified, the full ref name including prefix will be printed. The default option is short.

Беккер изо всех сил старался удержаться на шоссе, не дать веспе съехать на обочину. Я должен добраться до ангара. Интересно, увидит ли пилот лирджета, что он подъезжает.

- Не поможете. - Опоздала на самолет. Она кивнула. - Потеряла билет.

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Энсей Танкадо не чувствовал себя в безопасности. Лишь один неверный шаг слишком уж настойчивой фирмы, и ключ будет опубликован, а в результате пострадают все фирмы программного обеспечения. Нуматака затянулся сигарой умами и, выпустив струю дыма, решил подыграть этому любителю шарад.

- Итак, вы хотите продать ключ, имеющийся в вашем распоряжении. Интересно. А что по этому поводу думает Энсей Танкадо.

Рухнул не только его план пристроить черный ход к Цифровой крепости. В результате его легкомыслия АНБ оказалось на пороге крупнейшего в истории краха, краха в сфере национальной безопасности Соединенных Штатов. - Коммандер, вы ни в чем не виноваты! - воскликнула.

 - Если бы Танкадо был жив, мы могли бы заключить с ним сделку, и у нас был бы выбор. Но Стратмор ее не слышал. Его жизнь окончена.

--full-diff Without this flag, git log -p shows commits that touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified paths. With this, the full diff is shown.

- Кроме всего прочего, вирус просто не может проникнуть в ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Сквозь строй - лучший антивирусный фильтр из всех, что я придумал.

Через эту сеть ни один комар не пролетит.

Он был бледен и еле дышал. Увидев тело Хейла, Стратмор вздрогнул от ужаса. - О Боже! - воскликнул.  - Что случилось.

Компьютер однократно пискнул. На экране высветилось: СЛЕДОПЫТ ОТПРАВЛЕН Теперь надо ждать. Сьюзан вздохнула. Она чувствовала себя виноватой из-за того, что так резко говорила с коммандером.

Несколькими быстрыми нажатиями клавиш она вызвала программу, именуемую Экранный замок, которая давала возможность скрыть работу от посторонних глаз.

Он преобразовывал послания таким образом, чтобы текст выглядел бессмыслицей. Что, разумеется, было не. Каждое послание состояло из числа букв, равного полному квадрату, - шестнадцати, двадцати пяти, ста - в зависимости оттого, какой объем информации нужно было передать.

Цезарь тайно объяснил офицерам, что по получении этого якобы случайного набора букв они должны записать текст таким образом, чтобы он составил квадрат. Тогда, при чтении сверху вниз, перед глазами магически возникало тайное послание.

Значит, это не Дэвид. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее перехватило дыхание. Она лишь хотела знать, что человек, которого она любит, в безопасности. Стратмор, в свою очередь, тоже сгорал от нетерпения, но подругой причине.

Если Дэвид и дальше задержится, придется послать ему на помощь кого-то из полевых агентов АНБ, а это было связано с риском, которого коммандер всеми силами хотел избежать. - Коммандер, - сказал Чатрукьян, - я уверен, что нам надо проверить… - Подождите минутку, - сказал Стратмор в трубку, извинившись перед собеседником. Он прикрыл микрофон телефона рукой и гневно посмотрел на своего молодого сотрудника.

И размышлял о том, что должен ей сказать, чтобы убедить остаться. Сьюзан кинулась мимо Стратмора к задней стене и принялась отчаянно нажимать на клавиши. - Пожалуйста, - взмолилась .

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